So that’s the fix, right?? At this point, you’re probably thinking that I’ve already mentioned the fix.? If this change requires updates outside of the code, like updating the documentation, configuration, readme files, was this done? A code review checklist can make your code review practice so much more beneficial to your team and significantly speed-up code reviews. Security. Does this code change introduce any algorithm, AI or machine learning bias? Embold. to refer this checklist until it becomes a habitual practice for them. Then, look at the items that remain.? The review So, consider using a code review checklist, whether you are a new developer or already an experienced one. code at right level of abstraction methods have appropriate number, types of parameters no unnecessary features redundancy minimized mutability minimized static preferred over nonstatic appropriate accessibility (public, private, etc.) A code review checklist, as well as clear rules and guidelines around code reviews, are crucial. Was a framework, API, library, service used that should not be used? A great checklist directs your attention to the important and most valuable issues. The Worksheet is a useful guide for designers to analyze a building design and demonstrate that it complies with the Building Code. Think of it this way.? Can you think of any inputs or external events that could break the code? Have a look at my remote code review workshop. Do not review for more than 60 minutes at a time. Crystal-clear coding style guides are the only way to enforce consistency in a codebase. You are strongly encouraged to get your code reviewed by arevieweras soon asthere is any code to review, to get a second opinion on the chosen solution andimplementation, and an extra pair of eyes looking for bugs, logic problems, oruncovered edge cases. This approach has delivered many quality issues into the hands of our clients, which has helped them assess their risk and apply appropriate mitigation. Can the readability of the code be improved by different function/method or variable names? Code Review Template.xls - Free download as Excel Spreadsheet (.xls), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Build and Test — Before Code Review. Does this change make use of user data in a way that might raise privacy concerns? It also includes a few general questions too. If code deals with user input, does it address security vulnerabilities such as cross-site scripting, SQL injection, does it do input sanitization and validation? She has worked with teams from Microsoft, National Instruments, Metro Systems, Flutter, Wix and many more. Do the existing tests reasonably cover the code change? As you automate each one, delete it from your checklist (or prospective checklist). The main idea of this article is to give straightforward and crystal clear review points for code revi… The ones you can’t automate.? Here are the templates … Each method should have a clear responsibility. But you really don’t need this, even though it seems perfectly reasonable and inviting. How, exactly, do you evaluate the value of a checklist item or template question?? how to give respectful code review feedback, Build your own “intelligent” code review reminder, PR Rejections as a Metric for Code Review Quality, How to successfully blog as a developer in 2020, Stacked pull requests: make code reviews faster, easier, and more effective, Better code quality with effective collaboration and code review, The code compiles and passes static analysis without warnings, The code passes all tests (unit, integration, and system tests), You have double-checked for spelling mistakes and that you did a cleanup (comments, todos, etc. For starters, phrase your feedback as suggestions instead of demands. Heck, the first one is as simple as flipping a setting, in many development environments.? The Setup Wizard (available from the CodeRush -> Setup Wizard...options menu). The OWASP Code Review guide was originally born from the OWASP Testing Guide. a) The code should follow the defined architecture. There are plenty of recommendations for good quality Pull Requests out there. This is accomplished, in part, with code review. Then you’ll find a few more of those and put it together into your own list.? Do you believe some of those points are more important than others? In today’s era of Continuous Integration (CI), it’s key to … So, before sending out the code for review, make sure that: Apart from that you, as the code author, should run through the same code review checklist as the reviewer. Here are the factors that come into play. When reading through the code, it should be relatively easy for you to discern the role of specific functions, methods, or classes. File(s) and version(s) to be reviewed Does this code change do what it is supposed to do? All source code contains @author for all authors. Required fields are marked *. So they don’t bother trying and they wait for feedback at code review time.? Execution, where team members enforce the template at code review time. But, only if you automatically enforce them via tooling. You can read m… ... Use commit templates. General Code Review Recommendations. In this case, understanding code means being able to easily see the code’s inputs and outputs, what each line of code is doing, and how it fits into the bigger picture. I help companies improve their software development processes, like code reviewing or software testing. Cristal-clear coding styles can speed-up your code reviews. We recently migrated our community to a new web platform and regretably the content for this page needed to be programmatically ported from its previous wiki page. For a while, anyway. I get it.? There’s still some work to be done. Is the code located in the right file/folder/package? Don't make your reviewers check for issues tooling could detect more reliable and much more cost-effective. Join +2000 devs improving their code reviews, Google to have one of the fasted code review turnaround times, ready-made coding styles for many languages. Code Review Checklist. Code review is systematic examination (sometimes referred to as peer review) of computer source code. But if you automate most of the feedback, they’ll learn in real time, correct, and internalize the lessons.? All methods are commented in clear language. Just as you shouldn´t review code too quickly, … New code should be covered by unit tests. If you found this post by searching for code review templates, then stop your search and do something different.? Verify that you have selected the most efficient data type. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! The default approach is to choose a reviewer from your group or team for the first review.This is only a recommendation and the reviewer may be from a different team.However, it is recommended to pick someone who is a domain expert. Are authorization and authentication handled in the right way? Execution time is where you get that sticker shock.? It's packed with research based insights and tips. I’ll bet I can guess. You can also expand templates with the Tabkey. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. First, you’ll go searching and find something like this.? Each method should also have no more than three parameters. For this to be worthwhile, you need to get the cost of checking and fixing to zero.? Does this code open the software for security vulnerabilities? You looked and thought about the most pressing issues. Google is a great example of doing this right. But you’re also almost certainly not doing something else.? Finally, the quality of the code review feedback does not only depend on WHAT you are saying, but also on HOW you are saying it. Does this change add unwanted compile-time or run-time dependencies? Code Review guide for code authors and reviewers from thoughtbot is a great example of internal guide from a company. The purpose of this article is to propose an ideal and simple checklist that can be used for code review for most languages. Code Preparation: Use this checklist as a guideline for preparing the module Off-line Code Review: The items on this checklist should be reviewed during Off-line Code Review. What’s the problem, exactly? When you automate these things instead of putting them into a Word document to guide human checking, you reduce the cost of checking and fixing to zero and near zero, respectively.? A Secure Code Review is not a silver bullet, but instead is a strong part of an overall risk mitigation program to protect an application. It also defines formatting style for actual code (8pt Consolas). Close any connections you open and dispose of any resources that need disposing. ), You outlined what this change is about including the reason for the change and what changed. It is essential that you choose the best data type to store your data, which aligns with your business requirements. But you grin and bear it since you figure it’ll get better with time and that you’re catching important potential issues.? Does this code change introduce any gender/racial/political/religious/ableist bias? Which parts of the code review checklist are you focusing on the most? “It’s a living document,” you’ll assure everyone. Book a Code Review Workshop With Me! As a starting point, I recommend using the ready-made coding styles for many languages from Google. Does the code conform to any pertinent coding standards? But, once you decided how your codebase should look like, take the time to install and configure tooling properly so that code formatting becomes a matter of pressing a button. Many elements of a modern code review process are now fully automated. But, that’s not good. They then?can keep some items in mind as they go — more philosophical, big-picture ones like “methods should have only one responsibility.”. CodeIt.Right – Automated Code Review and Refactoring, flipping a setting, in many development environments, DaedTech Digest: Proving That Singletons Hurt You and More - DaedTech, Visual Studio Extensions: 7 You Should Check Out, C# Select and Where: Writing SQL-Style Queries in Code, Code Cleanup: 7 Simple Daily Steps That Pay off in the End, C# Documentation: A Start to Finish Guide, C# Inheritance: A Complete but Gentle Introduction, GhostDoc Pro Beta brings true Visual Editing to XML Comments, Visual Studio Comment Shortcuts: Efficiency Tips. Conception, where team members decide what should be true of the codebase. Use one of the following ways to bind the "TemplateExpand" command to the Tabkey: 1. Use static analysis tools to free up the time of your human code reviewers. They’ll check the checkboxes, fill out the text for the questions, and generate adjustments to the code where needed.? Functional Programming in C#: Map, Filter, and Reduce Your Way to Clean Code, 4 Common Datetime Mistakes in C# And How to Avoid Them. The first and foremost principle of a good review is this: if you commit to review code, review it … Each section guides you through several questions. Are you separating your concerns and creating good abstractions? Get Tips, News and Product Info Right To Your Inbox! It will include items like the following: You’ll put this document together, and then you’ll stick it on your group’s SharePoint site, where everyone can see it and add to it if need be.? Does this change lead to an exclusion of a certain group of people or users? Make Code Reviews your Superpower As a code reviewer, it is your task to look for the most important issues first. Does this code follow Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Principles, like the Single Responsibility Principle, Open-close principle, Liskov Substitution Principle, Interface Segregation, Dependency Injection? Architecture. Could some comments be removed by making the code itself more readable? Should any logging or debugging information be added or removed? Is sensitive data like user data, credit card information securely handled and stored? This isn’t to say that team members won’t ever argue for the exclusion of an idea; rather, in general, it’s easier to err on the side of over-inclusion because you’re not currently feeling the friction of too long a list.? If it is unclear to the reader, it is unclear to the user. This drudgery persists until the group throws the baby out with the bathwater. This step obviously was the biggest pain, but with Word template and Ctrl-A, Ctrl-C, Ctrl-V … The security code review checklist in combination with the secure code review process described above, culminates in how we at Software Secured approach the subject of secure code review. But you also do something far more important.? Below you find the checklist that I use also during my code review workshops. Generic Checklist for Code Reviews Structure Does the code completely and correctly implement the design? Does the change exploit behavioral patterns or human weaknesses? If so, why isn’t this functionality reused? Use this template to thank your customers for visiting your location and ask for a … And you probably?are catching important issues from time to time. ... Code Review Checklist . We have a code review word document template which is preset to use have 2 levels of headings: level 1-module, level 2-file name. Your email address will not be published. ?That is what your code review?should be — a discussion.? service logic in a service, controller logic in a controller, conversion logic in a converter or populator, model logic in an interceptor, reusable view code in a tag)? This is to ensure that most of the General coding guidelines have been taken care of, while coding. For instance, type in "c" and press Spaceto create a simple class in C#. Code becomes less readable as more of your working memory is … We clearly saw that comments revealing larger structural or logical problems are perceived as much more valuable than comments that focus on minor issues. And, consistency makes code reviews faster, allows people to change projects easily, and keeps your codebase readable and maintainable. Do you conform with the principle of least astonishment?? “Wow, it sure does take a long time to go over all of this stuff,” you might hear initially.? The document grows. They’ll check the checkboxes, fill out the text for the questions, and generate adjustments to the code where needed.? Thank you for visiting OWASP.org. It is intended to find mistakes overlooked in the … OWASP Code Review Guide. When you write code, you can only keep so many things in your head at once.? This includes automated code review tools, static analyzers, code formatting tools, build automation, and even custom code that you write.? So, consider using a code review checklist, whether you are a new developer or already an experienced one. Do you think certain methods should be restructured to have a more intuitive control flow? Code review checklists are not only something for the code reviewers. Before I dive into the meat of?why you don’t need this document, let me talk about what will happen to it when you acquire it. So, the best code review feedback is worth nothing when it isn’t carefully phrased, humble, and kind. All class, variable, and method modifiers should be examined for correctness. Do you think a specific expert, like a security expert or a usability expert, should look over the code before it can be committed? Checklist Item. If a violation stops people from compiling, I promise you that you don’t need to worry about it at code review time. This creates a new class and prompts you to name it (CodeRush names the constructor automatically). It is worth the initial effort. "A code review checklist can help encourage a smaller group to focus deeply on a specific area, another group to focus on a different area, and so on. A code review is a process by which developers examine source code in order to discover bugs, scrutinize coding conventions, and look for potential bottlenecks and resource leakage. Separation of Concerns followed. Would more comments make the code more understandable? First, get some tooling and automation in place.? Visual Studio IntelliSense Not Working? Think of shopping for a new car.? 1. And, over time, the satisfying feeling of creating the template fades, leaving only the rote drudgery of execution.? The main goal of a code review is to catch potential issues, security problems, and bugs before they are introduced to the codebase and prevent them from causing problems in production. For example, instead of writing “Variable name should be removeObject.” say “What about calling the variable removeObject?”. Learn more how CodeIt.Right can help you automate code reviews and improve the quality of your code. Another resource that might be super valuable for you is my code review e-book. This is where code review checklists come into play. Might the code, or what it enables, lead to mental and physical harm for (some) users? Notice that all of these require human conversations and the value judgments of experienced software developers.? Does your code follow the SOLID principles?? Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. A code review checklist can make your code review practice so much more beneficial to your team and significantly speed-up code reviews. Receive the Awesome Code Reviews newsletter every other Tuesday in your inbox. So, is that not important? Each and every item on it has non-trivial cost for checking and fixing, which means that you’ll get negative return on items in the template that either aren’t that important or don’t come up very often.? This is where the rigid emphasis on code review as a totally objective activity, and the failure to consider the creative nature of software development, can become a problem. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Is the proposed solution (UI) accessible? Consolidated log available: Author consolidates individual logs into a single log and sends it to the participants by email. I am Erik Dietrich, founder of DaedTech LLC, programmer, architect, IT management consultant, author, and technologist. […] one for SubMain.? Your email address will not be published. Finally, did you know that I help teams make code reviews their superpower? Would you have solved the problem in a different way that is substantially better in terms of the code’s maintainability, readability, performance, security? Does similar functionality already exist in the codebase? And the code review template sits there on SharePoint, untouched, like a digital fossil. And to do that, you need automation, not a Word document. Here’s what I’d recommend instead. Especially, it will be very helpful for entry-level and less experienced developers (0 to 3 years exp.) Okay, so what happened?? This is a General Code Review checklist and guidelines for C# Developers, which will be served as a reference point during development. Congratulations! Even though there are a lot of code review techniques available everywhere along with how to write good code and how to handle bias while reviewing, etc., they always miss the vital points while looking for the extras. You’re almost certainly not evaluating whether each item in your template catches issues frequently enough to be worth the time it consumes. Do you think this code change will impact system performance in a negative way? Category. Documentation. But where you’d eventually expect the efficiency of these reviews to improve, the opposite happens.? These will, I assure you, be more philosophical.? Java Code Review Checklist by Mahesh Chopker is a example of a very detailed language-specific code review checklist. And you don’t need a code review template to make that happen.? Initially code review was covered in the Testing Guide, as it seemed like a good idea at the time. Your team can create review processes that improve the quality of your code and fit neatly into your workflow. Let’s say you take this approach and routinely audit the code review template, culling outdated concerns, adding new ones, and revising existing ones.? Are there some test cases, input, or edge cases that should be tested in addition? Code Review is an integral process of software development that helps identify bugs and defects before the testing phase. The frequency with which team members actually make the mistake in question. Dr. Michaela Greiler makes code reviews a team's superpower through her code review workshops. Studies have shown that code reviewers who use checklists outperform code reviewers who don’t. Short answer: it is important. Why. Ah, but it’s a little more complicated than that. The appropriate document should have a checklist of items for you to tick off and perhaps some free-form text spaces for you to make notes.? Here’s the problem with a Word document containing a code review checklist.? Is the proposed solution well designed from a usability perspective? It is easier to get hung-up in nitpicking. Editors and IDEs will find syntax errors, evaluate Boolean logic, and warn about infinite loops. Review team. It covers security, performance, and clean code practices. First of all, here you can download the whole checklist as PDF or check it out on GitHub. Instead, as the author of the code change, follow the code review best practice and be your own reviewer first! @version should be included as required. It is important to set the ground rules, but make sure to do that once and for all. Hint: just automate stuff […], SubMain.com | Products | Downloads | Support | Contact, © 2020 SubMain Software. Make class final if not being used for inheritance. This helps the code review achieve depth." In one of our large studies at Microsoft, we investigated what great code review feedback looks like. A code review checklist can sometimes become pretty overwhelming, hence I have tried to mention 10 important guidelines which you can adhere to. All rights reserved. Code reviews get longer and more mind-numbing, and people start to hate them.? Embold is a software analytics platform that analyses source code across 4 dimensions: … Might this change have any ramifications for other parts of the system, backward compatibility? Code Review Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for peer programmer code reviews. The group’s collective dissatisfaction eventually leads to an overhaul of the process. Now, one of the exercises that I do in my code review workshops is to reflect with the participants on the code review checklist by answering three questions: Maybe during this exercise, you realized that I did not check whether the code follows the right coding style. So, let’s start: Well, that’s it. Can the readability of the code be improved by smaller methods? Just about every feature, bell, and whistle seems like a good idea…at least until you see what it does the price. You can find the checklist I use in my code review workshops also in a compact format on Github. Your brand-new code review process will get off to a good start, with people participating and faithfully following the code review template.? Does this code change reveal some secret information (like keys, usernames, etc.)? The magnitude/importance of issues it prevents. Learn more. … Readability in software means that the code is easy to understand. Is the right encryption used? And the tendency of these code review templates to grow with time exacerbates the problem. In your mind, this probably takes the form of a worksheet of some kind.? What do you have in mind when you search or hope for a code review template?? Howev - er, the topic of security code review is too big and evolved into its own stand-alone guide. If you’re currently in a shop where you have a clipboard-style checklist, then revise your approach.? It is divided into ten separate sections. Most code review checklists have?far too many items for developers to remember them all.? I work for corporations such as Microsoft, but also help smaller businesses and start-ups to ensure a productive, satisfying and efficient software engineering process. Preview changes in context with your code to see what is being proposed. Consider a few things that you’ll typically see in some code review template’s list of checkboxes. Code review is often overlooked as an ongoing practice during the development phase, but countless studies show it's the most effective quality assurance strategy. And this surely allows Google to have one of the fasted code review turnaround times. Developers wouldn’t be able to compile without complying with this checklist item.? You free the developers to think of bigger-picture design issues while coding. … I started the Code Review Project in 2006. Let’s also assume that you have enough time to do this meta-activity and get everyone’s buy-in (which is far from a given).? Deadline for the review comments: Reviewers complete inspection logs and sends them to the author by email. Code review helps developers learn the code base, as well as help them learn new technologies and techniques that grow their skill sets. Also, there is much more you can do. Does it have enough automated tests (unit/integration/system tests)? Do you see any potential to improve the performance of the code? This current edition You’re looking for something to guide you through the process.? Don’t argue about it on an ongoing basis. Legal | About Us. Which parts were confusing to you and why? This time I asserted that you don’t need code review templates.? Agile teams are self-organizing, with skill sets that span across the team. For a while, anyway. Name Reviewer Role Scope Time Spent Review scope. Why don’t I just recommend that, instead of claiming that you don’t need the code review template at all? You can automate checks for each of these and incorporate them into the build.? Type a template name and press Spaceto expand the template. Shortcuts... items (available from IDE -> Short… To understand the issue, let’s break the existence of the code review template into two conceptual phases: When you gather for the conception portion, you’re engaging in a very “yes-and” kind of activity.? Are there enough log events and are they written in a way that allows for easy debugging? Code review is a process that enables peers and automated tools to check proposed changes to a codebase. It only takes a minute to sign up. For more input read my article on how to give respectful code review feedback. Studies have shown that code reviewers who use checklists outperform code reviewers who don’t. You just need to automate the simple stuff and have a healthy group consensus on what it means, philosophically, to write good code. For example: Is every piece of code in the right place (e.g. I mentioned evaluating each item in the code review template regularly to see if it’s pulling its weight.? Then, they start to?avoid them altogether, when possible.? Can you think of any use case in which the code does not behave as intended? Your brand-new code review process will get off to a good start, with people participating and faithfully following the code review template.? Code Summary Plans are a vital reference for designers, plan reviewers, contractors and inspectors, and are valuable for the design and review of separate Mechanical Permits and future alterations of a building. Is data retrieved from external APIs or libraries checked accordingly? On GitHub, lightweight code review tools are built into every pull request. Could some comments convey the message better? 2. Review Summary The secure code review of the Example App application was completed on October 17, 2013 by a review team consisting of [redacted name] and [redacted name]. Fundamentals. Will this code change impact different teams? What To Do. If the code adds or alters ways in which people interact with each other, are appropriate measures in place to prevent/limit/report harassment or abuse? Is the code at the right abstraction level? Should they have a say on the change as well? Are there any best practices, design patterns, or language-specific patterns that could substantially improve this code? Sign up to join this community. Identify everything in a prospective checklist that you can automate, and then automate it.? It will also guide you through the process in general. An ongoing basis I recommend using the ready-made coding styles for many languages from Google on how to respectful! Different. that allows for easy debugging world 's largest social reading publishing! From external APIs or libraries checked accordingly point, you ’ re also almost certainly not evaluating each... Source code across 4 dimensions: … code review workshop with Me problems are perceived as much more beneficial your... Just about every feature, bell, and method modifiers should be restructured have... Analysis tools to free up the time. but if you automatically them... Shouldn´T review code too quickly, … type a template name and press expand! And whistle seems like a good idea at the time of your human code who... Searching and find something like this. of your code review checklists come into.!, consider using a code review best practice and be your own reviewer!. Say “What about calling the variable removeObject? ” the process. an exclusion of a of..., your blog can not share posts by email this current edition Deadline for the pressing. By Mahesh Chopker is a great example of a checklist item. code review template time the... Be worth the time. reader, it sure does take a long to... Too quickly, … type a template name and press Spaceto create a simple class in C #,... Greiler makes code reviews creates a new class and prompts you to name it ( names. Idea of this article is to ensure that most of the code not. Hear initially. heck, the best code review workshop with Me, instead of demands for ( )... All, here you can find the checklist I use in my code review also... Some ) users if not being used for inheritance stop your search and do something more. Are you focusing on the most pressing issues fully automated Downloads | Support | Contact ©. Human conversations and the value judgments of experienced software developers. reviewers check for issues tooling could detect reliable!, the first one is as simple as flipping a setting, in part, with people and! Development environments. their software development processes, like code reviewing or software Testing Awesome... System, backward compatibility business requirements astonishment? your feedback as suggestions instead of demands document containing a code checklist. Create review processes that improve the quality of your code review template ’ pulling! Real time, the topic of security code review time. you ’ ll assure.. Ramifications for other parts of the code conform to any pertinent coding standards list. log and them... Members decide what should be true of the feedback, they ’ find! Issues first ( available from code review template OWASP Testing guide to compile without with. Point, I recommend using the ready-made coding styles for many languages from.! Can you think certain methods should be — a discussion. coding guides... To guide you through the process in General, configuration, readme files, this. Time. a codebase Tuesday in your head at once., configuration, readme files, was done. In addition text for the questions, and method modifiers should be examined for correctness to go all... Studies have shown that code reviewers who don ’ t argue about it an! In question s collective dissatisfaction eventually leads to an exclusion of a group! It seemed like a good idea…at least until you see what it does the code template! Tooling could detect more reliable and much more beneficial to your team and significantly speed-up code reviews superpower..., type in `` C '' and press Spaceto expand the template. is! The ready-made coding styles for many languages from Google internal guide from a company Testing! That allows for easy debugging backward compatibility warn about infinite loops to mental and physical for! Class in C # weight. makes code reviews get longer and more mind-numbing, and code review template team decide. Able to compile without complying with this checklist until it becomes a habitual for... Tools to free up the time of your code review templates. keeps your codebase readable and maintainable a point... Review process will get off to a good start, with skill.! Class in C # ll typically see in some code review checklist, whether you are a new developer already... Ll go searching and find something like this. check your email addresses, programmer,,! Use static analysis tools to free up the time of your code that shock! Point, I recommend using the ready-made coding styles for many languages from Google the review:. Add unwanted compile-time or run-time dependencies, did you know that I help teams code! Ll find a few things that you don ’ t I just recommend that, instead writing! Code to see what is being proposed methods should be examined for correctness should not be?... Patterns, or language-specific patterns that could substantially improve this code change will impact system performance in a prospective )... Outlined what this change lead to an overhaul code review template the code where needed. of user data, which be! Have enough automated tests ( unit/integration/system tests ) to a good idea the. Seems like a good start, with people participating and faithfully following the code completely and correctly implement design. For the code review time. 8pt Consolas ) menu ) are self-organizing, with skill sets also guide through. Templates, then revise your approach. point, I assure you, be more philosophical. could. Here you can automate checks for each of these require human conversations the! To set the ground rules, but make sure to do that once for. Of demands be restructured to have one of the code review templates. think this code change, the. Execution, where team members actually make the mistake in question perceived as much more beneficial to Inbox! Current edition Deadline for the most important issues from time to go over all of and... Integration ( CI ), it sure does take a long time to go over all of this,... It seems perfectly reasonable and inviting but you really don ’ t be able compile... People participating and faithfully following the code review workshops also in a compact format on GitHub for the code best! Carefully phrased, humble, and generate adjustments to the code change substantially this!

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